DHCP

Understanding DHCP

DHCP (Dynamic Configuration Protocol) is a service that automatically assigns an IP number to the computer requesting it. Computers that provide IP numbers are referred to as DHCP servers, while computers that request IP numbers are referred to as DHCP Clients. Thus administrators no longer need to manually provide IP numbers during TCP / IP configuration, but enough to provide a reference to the DHCP Server.

When the second DHCP client is turned on, the computer requests a DHCP-Server to get an IP number. DHCP answers by giving an IP number that is in the DHCP database. DHCP Server after assigning an IP number, the server lends (leases) the existing IP number to DHCP-Client and cross out the IP number from the pool list. The IP number is given along with the subnet mask and default gateway. If there is no more IP number that can be given, then the client cannot initialize TCP / IP, by itself it cannot connect to that network.

After a certain period of time, the use of the DHCP Client is declared complete and the client does not renew the request again, then the IP number is returned to the DHCP Server, and the server can provide the IP number to the Client in need. The length of this period can be determined in minutes, hours, months or forever. The period of time is called a leased period.

Do you know what DHCP is? Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, or often abbreviated as DHCP, is a client-server protocol that is used to automatically assign IP addresses to client / network devices.
The reason why many implement DHCP is the ease of giving IP addresses to client / network devices (even in large numbers) automatically. So we don't need to manually assign an IP address to each computer one by one.

The DHCP server not only provides IP addresses, but also provides netmask, host name, domain name, DNS, and gateway address as well. In addition, the DHCP server can also provide other parameters such as time servers and so on. This way, a server admin does not need to bother giving an IP address to each client computer that wants to connect to the network. If dozens of client computers might not be a problem, then what about thousands of client computers?

Different DHCP client and DHCP server

In DHCP services, there are two terms you need to know, namely DHCP client and DHCP server. So what's the difference between the two?

Computers that are tasked with providing IP addresses automatically to client computers are called DHCP servers. While the computer that requests an IP address is called a DHCP client.
How it works DHCP. When a user turns on his computer and connects it to a server that uses DHCP services, the computer automatically requests an IP address to the server. Then the server answers the computer request and gives it an IP address.

To be more clear about how DHCP works, you can listen to the processes that occur in DHCP services as follows:

  1. IP Least Request
  2. The client computer requests an IP address to the server
  3. Least Offer IP
  4. The DHCP server that has a list of IP addresses offers offers to client computers
  5. IP Lease Selection
  6. The client computer selects / selects offers that are first given DHCP, then broadcasts by Sending a message that the client computer approves the offer
  7. IP Lease Acknowledge
  8. At this stage the DHCP server receives the message and starts sending an acknowledgment package (DHCPACK) to the client.
  9. The package contains how long the client computer can use that IP address (given the DHCP server) along with other configurations. And the client computer can connect to the network.

Benefits of Using DHCP Services

  1. No need to give / configure IP addresses to clients one by one
  2. Prevent the occurrence of IP conflicts that often occur on a network
  3. With DHCP services, client computers can use IP addresses within a certain period of time (depending on the server)
  4. The client computer can use an IP address that is not used by other client computers
  5. In addition, with DHCP, we can integrate a machine (host) into a network, because later the machine will get an IP address also through pooling previously created by the server.

So a little conclusion from my writing about the understanding of DHCP is that DHCP is a client-server protocol used to automatically assign IP addresses to clients. There are four processes that occur in the way the DHCP server works, namely IP Least Request, Least Offer IP, IP Lease Selection, and IP Lease Acknowledge.


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