Tcp Port

1. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)

TCP PORT-TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is one type of protocol that allows a set of computers to communicate and exchange data within a network.
TCP has the characteristics of a connection oriented protocol. The TCP Port protocol uses a full duplex data path which means that between the two hosts there are two paths, the entrance and exit path so that data can be sent simultaneously.

2. Characteristics of TCP / IP

  • Reliable means that data is transferred to its destination in a sequence such as when sent. Has a reliable and efficient data delivery mechanism.
  • Connection oriented (connection-oriented). Before data can be transmitted between two hosts, two processes running at the application layer must negotiate to establish a connection session first. TCP Port connections are closed by using the TCP Port connection termination process (TCP connection termination).
  • Full-duplex: For each TCP host, the connection that occurs between two hosts consists of two paths, the exit and entry paths. By using a lower layer technology that supports full-duplex, the data can be simultaneously received and sent. The TCP Port header contains a sequence number (TCP sequence number) of transmitted data and an acknowledgment from incoming data.
  • Has flow control services. To prevent too much data from being sent at one time, which eventually "jammed" the IP internetwork network, TCP implemented a flow control service that was owned by the sender who continuously monitored and limited the amount of data sent at one time. To prevent the recipient from obtaining buffer data, TCP also implements flow control on the recipient's side, which indicates the amount of buffer that is still available on the recipient's side.
  • Segmenting data coming from the application layer (in the DARPA Reference Model) Send packages "one-to-one". this is because TCP must indeed make a logical circuit between two application layer protocols so that they can communicate with each other. TCP does not provide one-to-many data transmission services.
  • It is open platform or platform independent, which is not bound by certain types of hardware or software.
  • Because of its open nature, TCP / IP can transmit data between different computer systems running on different operating systems.
  • TCP\IP is separate from the underlying hardware system.. This protocol can be run on Ethernet networks, Token rings, X.25, and even through telephone lines.
  • TCP \ IP uses a shared addressing scheme, so that all systems can send data to other system addresses that we want.
  • Sending file (file transfer). File Transfer Protocol (FTP) allows one computer user to be able to send or receive files to a network computer. Because of data security problems, FTP often requires a username and password, although many FTP can also be accessed through anonymous, aka not passwords. (see RFC 959 for FTP specifications).

3. Examples of Applications Using TCP Protocol

  • TELNET
  • FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
  • SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)

4. How TCP PORT / IP Works

  • Datagrams are divided into small parts according to the bandwidth size (frequency width) where the data will be sent.
  • At the TCP Port layer, the data is then "wrapped" with the required header information. For example, such as how to direct the data to its destination, how to re-arrange the data if it reaches its destination, and so on.
  • After the datagram is wrapped in a TCP header, the datagram is sent to the IP layer.
  • IP receives datagram from TCP and adds its own header to the datagram.
  • IP then directs the datagram to its destination.
The receiving computer performs the calculation processes, it checks the same checksum calculation as the data received. If the two calculations are not suitable it means there is an error during the delivery and the datagram will be sent back.

5. UDP (User Datagram Protocol)

Whereas UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is a transport layer that is not reliable, unreliable / connectionless and is the opposite of the TCP transport layer. Using UDP, each socket application can send packets in the form of datagrams. The term datagram is intended for packages with unreliable services. Reliable connections always provide information if data transmission fails, while unreliable connections will not send acknowledgments even if data transmission fails.

Data in the UDP protocol will be sent as a datagram without an identifier number. So that saIt is very likely that the data is not sequential and is very likely to be lost / damaged in transit from the original host to the destination host.

6. Characteristics of UDP

  • (lightweight) protocol. To save memory resources and processors, some application layer protocols require the use of lightweight protocols that can perform specific functions by exchanging messages.
  • Broadcast transmission. Because UDP is a protocol that does not need to connect first with a particular host, broadcast transmission is also possible. An application layer protocol can send data packets to multiple destinations using multicast or broadcast addresses. This contrasts with the TCP Port protocol which can only send one-to-one transmissions.
  • UDP does not provide a buffer mechanism (buffering) of incoming data or outgoing data. Task buffering is a task that must be implemented by application layer protocols that run above UDP.
  • UDP does not provide a large data segmentation mechanism into data segments, as happens in the TCP Port protocol. For this reason, application layer protocols running above UDP must send data that is small (not greater than the Maximum Transfer Unit / MTU) that is owned by an interface where the data is sent. Because, if the packet size of the data sent is greater than the value of the MTU, the data packet that is sent can be split into several fragments which ultimately don't get sent correctly.
  • UDP does not provide a flow-control mechanism, like that of TCP.
  • Connectionless (without connection). UDP messages will be sent without having to do a connection negotiation process between two hosts who want to exchange information.
  • Unreliable (not reliable). UDP messages will be sent as datagrams in the absence of sequence numbers or acknowledgment messages. Application layer protocols running on UDP must recover messages lost during transmission. Generally, application layer protocols that run above UDP implement their respective reliability services, or send messages periodically or by using defined times.

7. Examples of Applications Using the UDP Protocol

  1. DNS <Domain Name System>
  2. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
  3. TFTP <Trivial File Transfer Protocol>
  4. SunRPC

 8. Differences in TCP / IP and UDP

  • TCP: Reliable If the connection is lost when sending a message then the server will ask for the missing part. So there won't be corrupt data when transferring data.
    UDP: Unreliable If you send a message or data, you will not know whether it has been sent or not and whether some of the messages were lost or not during the sending process. So there will be a possibility of corrupt data.
  • TCP: Sequentially When sending two messages in sequence / one after another. TCP will send it sequentially. No need to worry about the data arriving in the wrong order.
    UDP: Not sequential When sending two messages in sequence / one after another. It cannot be ascertained which data will come first.
  • TCP: Connection-oriented (connection-oriented) Before data can be transmitted between two hosts, two processes that run at the application layer must negotiate to establish a connection session first. TCP connections are closed by using the TCP connection termination process (TCP connection termination).
    UDP: Connectionless (no connection) UDP messages will be sent without having to do a connection negotiation process between two hosts who want to exchange information.
  • TCP: Weight (Heavyweight) When the lowest level of TCP is reached in the wrong order, the request for resending data must be sent. and all other parts must be returned. So it requires a process to unite it
    UDP: Light (Lightweight) There are no message requests, no connection connections and others, just run and forget it. This means it's much faster and the network card / OS only does a little work to translate data back from the package.
  • TCP: Streaming data / packages are read as a data stream. without knowing the limit of each data ending and the other data starting. There is a possibility that several data packages are read per one data call.
    UDP: Datagrams Packages are sent individually and are guaranteed to be intact upon arrival. One package is read per call.
  • TCP: World Wide Web <Apache TCP port 80>, e-mail <SMTP TCP port 25 Postfix MTA>, File Transfer Protocol (FTP port 21) and Secure Shell (OpenSSH port 22) etc.
    UDP: Domain Name System <DNS UDP 53>, streaming media applications such as IPTV or movies, Voice over IP <VoIP>, Trivial File Transfer Protocol <TFTP> and online multiplayer games etc. tcp port

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